The photographic formats we’ve examined so far in this series showing you how to date your old family photographs are daguerreotypes and collodion positives. Next up: ferrotypes, also known as tintypes.
I’ll show you how to identify a ferrotype using just a few simple clues, and will then take a look at some examples of ferrotypes in our collection.
About the ferrotype process
Ferrotypes first appeared in America in the 1850s, but didn’t become popular in Britain until the 1870s. They were still being made by while-you-wait street photographers as late as the 1950s.
The ferrotype process was a variation of the collodion positive, and used a similar process to wet plate photography.
A very underexposed negative image was produced on a thin iron plate. It was blackened by painting, lacquering or enamelling, and coated with a collodion photographic emulsion. The dark background gave the resulting image the appearance of a positive. Unlike collodion positives, ferrotypes did not need mounting in a case to produce a positive image.
The ability to utilise a very under exposed image meant that a photographer could prepare, expose, develop, and varnish a ferrotype plate in just a few minutes. This, along with the resilience and cheapness of the medium (iron, rather than glass), meant that ferrotypes soon replaced collodion positives as the favourite ‘instant’ process used by itinerant photographers.
Why are ferrotypes also known as tintypes?
The ferrotype process was described in 1853 by Adolphe-Alexandre Martin, but it was first patented in 1857 by Hamilton Smith in America, and by Willian Kloen and Daniel Jones in England.
William and Peter Neff manufactured the iron used for the plates, which they called ‘melainotype plates’. A rival manufacturer, Victor Griswold, made a similar product and called them ‘ferrotype plates’.
The term ‘ferrotype’ was in common use, but the public tended to prefer the less formal ‘tintype’, implying the cheap, tinny feeling of the material. You can read more about the history and naming of the ferrotype on the George Eastman House website.
Use these clues to identify a ferrotype
These were made using a thin sheet of iron coated with black enamel and can be identified using a magnet.
Because they are not produced from a negative, the images are reversed (as in a mirror). They are a very dark grey-black and the image quality is often poor.
Ferrotypes were sometimes put into cheap papier-mâché cases or cardboard mounts, but today they are frequently found loose.
Most ferrotypes are fairly small, about 2×3 inches.
Because they are made on thin sheets of iron, ferrotypes often show evidence of rust spots or blisters on the surface where the enamel has started to lift off.
Examples of ferrotypes in our collection
Further reading and interesting links
- Edward M. Estabrooke, The Ferrotype and How to Make It, 1903
- Audrey Linkman, ‘Cheap Tin Trade: The Ferrotype Portrait in Victorian Britain’, Photographica World, No. 69, January 1994
- Steven Kasher, America and the Tintype, Steidl, 2008
- The history of photography in pictures
- In this video, Mark Osterman from George Eastman House demonstrates how to make a ferrotype:
More in the series
- How to spot a daguerreotype (1840s–1850s)
- How to spot a collodion positive/ambrotype (early 1850s–1880s)
- How to spot a carte de visite (late 1850s–c.1910)
- How to spot a cabinet card (1866–c.1914)
- How to spot a postcard (1900–1950s)
- How to date Victorian photographs
- How to date photographs by fashion
- Researching your photographer ancestors